Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with a higher risk for vascular dementia (VD). Vascular Dementia is a brain damage from impaired blood flow to brain or multiple strokes. T2DM diabetes patients with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7) has increased risk for VD and non-vascular dementia (NVD). Identification of modifiable lifestyle risk factors in high-risk individuals along with preventative approaches could alleviate dementia risk in patients with T2D.
A recent observational study (median follow-up, 6.7 years) which analysed data of 378,299 patients with T2D (mean age, 64.13 years) and 1,886,022 matched control participants from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry.
Patients with T2D had the highest risk for VD (HR, 1.35), followed by NVD (HR, 1.08), and a lower risk for AD (HR, 0.92). Compared with patients with T2D having optimal HbA1C (<53 mmol/L), those with HbA1C ≥87 mmol/L and 76-86 mmol/L had a 35% and 32% higher risk for AD, respectively. Compared with patients with T2D having HbA1C <53 mmol/L, those with higher HbA1C had a 10-67% and 18-93% higher risk for NVD and VD, respectively.
Age, diabetes duration, existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), body mass index and blood pressure were key factors mediating dementia risk in T2D. CVD-related factors increased the risk for VD by 40%, NVD by 20% and AD by 10% in patients with T2D. The study concluded that the patients with T2D had the highest risk for vascular complications.