1. Low Serum magnesium level may indicate T2DM

Low levels of magnesium have been associated with diabetes mellitus. Magnesium plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism and insulin action: it is a cofactor used in transporting glucose across cellular membrane and for enzymes involved in carbohydrate oxidation, and aids in insulin release.

A total of 50 T2DM patients were included in a study to assess whether any correlation existed between serum magnesium levels and the duration and control of T2DM patients. Samples of blood were collected for analysis of fasting blood sugar(FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBG), HbA1c, and serum magnesium. They were then grouped into 3 categories based on their HbA1c: Group 1 – good control (7-8%), Group 2 – need intervention (8.1-9%), and Group 3 - poor control (>9%).

The analysis showed that serum magnesium levels decline with increasing level of HbA1c and with increasing duration of T2DM. This study showed a possible correlation between magnesium levels and the control and duration of T2DM, and suggest that magnesium levels could be used as an indicator of a T2DM patient's status. However, the authors also stated that inadequate magnesium intake in the diet can also cause a deficiency.

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